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Saturday, 17 January 2015

Two Fawns and a Rabbit

Hi dear friends and followers. Today we visit the legends of the Ute.

Arizona was indeed an interssting place for Native American legends and myths and now we move on to its neighboring state, Utah.

Utah is the home of the Ute People for whom the state was named. It is interesting in that it is where two major cultures, those of the plains dwellers and those of the desert inhabitants, meet.

The following legends come from the plains-dwelling Utes. The first one, Two Fawns and a Rabbit, appears to explain how and why deer live and eat as they do. The second, Bear and Puma, has the quality of a story told by the fireside to a captive audience to pass the time on a freezing cold January night. Enjoy the legends!


Two Fawns and a Rabbit

Two young Fawns sat on the ground talking about their condition. They were two boys without a mother. "We used to have a deer for our mother," they said. Rabbit came to them and said "I'm hungry. I've travelled without eating, and I've come a long way."

The Fawns said, "We have nothing to eat here; our food is not here." Where is it?" asked Rabbit. "It is not here, I say to you again," said one Fawn.

Rabbit said, "Tell me where it is, I am hungry and I want to eat." He continued talking about the Fawns' food for a long time. But they concealed from him how they obtained it.

Then Rabbit said, "I think you both are too lazy to get the food. Show me the path and I will go after it; I will cut off enough for all of us and bring it here."

"But we never eat here," the Fawns said. Rabbit said, "You boys do not know me. I am your grandfather. You did not recognize me; that is why you hid your food from me." The one boy nudged the other and whispered to him, "I think he is our grandfather; I will tell him where we eat."

For a while, the other boy said nothing. Then he spoke up and said, "What we eat is not on the ground; our food is far up in the sky; and we eat at a certain time. When we ask for our food, something always comes down from the sky; it is white like a cloud. At the end of the cloud it's like a person; it has an eye, a mouth, and it watches us. It comes only at a certain time. If we ask before time, it will think someone else wants our food. But when it's time for us to ask for it, we will hide you out of sight." Then they hid him.

One ran toward the East, the other toward the West; then they ran toward each other. When they met, they cried like young animals at play. They circled about, met each other again, crying, and gradually came nearer to the tent. Something white came down from the sky. Rabbit saw it coming. It looked like a cloud with a face above it; like a man sitting on their food.

The boys took up dull knives, and when the food arrived, they cut off a piece. They cut more than usual, so there would be enough for their grandfather. Then the cloud flew upward as fast as lightning.

The Fawn boys cut up their food and called Rabbit to come out and eat with them. The food tasted good and sweet, and Rabbit wanted more and asked the boys to make the thing come again. The Fawns said, "But it only comes at set times." Rabbit replied, "I will live with you, for your food is very good." He made a burrow in the brush nearby and watched.

The food did come down again. The person riding on it looked around like an antelope watching. Rabbit took a bow and arrow from his quiver. Just before the cloud came low enough for the boys to cut off another piece of food, Rabbit shot at the manlike object on the cloud. The white object fell down in a heap.

"I thought that was what it would do," said the older brother to the younger, as if blaming him. Rabbit said to them, "Well, my grandchildren, I will leave you now. You have something to eat and it will last you a long time. After you have consumed all of it, you will go to the mountains and eat grass and become Deer."

Puma and the Bear

One day Puma took his son hunting with him. The Bear came to Puma's tent and saw his wife there, and immediately fell in love with her. "I wish to have her for my wife," he thought. Then he went in to where she was sitting. In only a short time, he proposed that she run away with him. She consented and ran away with the Bear.

When Puma returned, he could not find his wife. "I wonder if she could have eloped with that Bear?" he mused. At first he and his son saw no tracks, but eventually they picked up the couple's trail. Angry by now, Puma followed the Bear tracks.

A high wind began to blow, obliterating most of the tracks. The next day Puma found them again and followed on. "Perhaps they are in that cedar wood," he thought. As he moved closer, he heard voices and recognized his wife's and the Bear's.

He sent his son to circle the wood, approaching from the other side of the wood to force the Bear out toward Puma. The woman said "Puma is very strong." "But I am stronger," said the Bear, seizing a cedar tree and pulling it from the ground. "He is stronger than that," said the woman.

The Bear had his moccasins off when Puma's son attacked. Quickly the Bear put on his moccasins, but in his haste he put them on the wrong feet. Then, not knowing who was coming behind him, he ran forward into Puma. The two grappled and Puma threw the Bear to the ground. The Bear rose up again and charged at Puma, who thrust the Bear down against a rock and broke the Bear's back.

Then Puma sent his wife away into the woods, letting her know that he did not want her for his wife again. Puma and his son left on another hunting trip to find a new wife and home for themselves.

Thank you very much again, dear friends, for visiting my blog. Please share your thoughts with us, if you will. have a great Week.
ڰۣIn Loving Light from the Fairy Ladyڰۣ

Thursday, 15 January 2015

Noqoìlpi, the Gambler: A Navajo Myth



I could not leave Arizona without giving attention to the great Navajo People. Perhaps you have heard of them. 


Their most recent contribution to the American nation was made when they served as forward observers against the Japanese in the Pacific Campaign in World War II. These men spoke to one another in their own Navajo language, a "code" that the Japanese could not crack. Some Navajo code talkers were captured and endured unbelievable torture at the hands of the enemy but none said a word about their language.

Below is an article from a magazine, Journal of American Folklore. I have no idea as to the copyright status of this item but its age being 126 years makes me believe that it is past copyright. Enjoy reading and learning from this Native American myth.


Noqoìlpi, the Gambler: A Navajo Myth
Matthews, Washington

Franz Boas, T. Frederick Crane, J. Owen Dorsey; W.W. Newell, General Editor.
Journal of American Folklore, Vol II, No. V, April-June, 1889.

In the cañon of the Chaco, in northern New Mexico, there are many ruins of ancient pueblos which are still in a fair state of preservation, in some of them entire apartments being yet, it is said, intact. One of the largest of these is called by the Navajos Kintyèl or Kintyèli, which signifies "Broad-house." It figures frequently in their legends and is the scene of a very interesting rite-myth, which I have in my collection. I have reason to believe that this pueblo is identical with that seen and described in 1849 by Lieut. J. H. Simpson, U. S. A.,2 under the name of Pueblo Chettro Kettle. Although his guide translated this "Rain Pueblo," it seems more probably a corruption of the Navajo Tseçqa orTceçga (English Chethra) Kintyèl, or "Broad House among the Cliffs," -- i.e., in the cañon. This story of Noqoìlpi was not related to me as a separate tale, but as a part of the great creation and migration legend of the Navajos. When the wandering Navajos arrived at Kintyèl, this great pueblo was in process of building, but was not finished. The way it came to be built was this:


NOQOÌLPI, [1] THE GAMBLER: A NAVAJO MYTH.

Some time before, there had descended among the Pueblos, from the heavens, a divine gambler or gambling-god, named Noqoìlpi, or He-who-wins-men (at play); his talisman was a great piece of turquoise. When he came, he challenged the people to all sorts of games and contests, and in all of these he was successful. He won from them, first their property, then their women and children, and finally some of the men themselves. Then he told them he would give them part of their property back in payment [See Note "A" --- Desertphile] if they would build a great house; so when the Navajos came [See Note "B" --- Desertphile], the Pueblos were busy building in order that they might release their enthralled relatives and their property. They were also busy making a race-track, and preparing for all kinds of games of chance and skill.

When all was ready, and four days' notice had been given, twelve men came from the neighboring pueblo of Kinçolíj (Blue-house) to compete with the great gambler. They bet their own persons, and after a brief contest they lost themselves to Noqoìlpi. Again a notice of four days was given, and again twelve men of Kinçolíj -- relatives of the former twelve -- came to play, and these also lost themselves. For the third time an announcement, four days in advance of a game, was given; this time some women were among the twelve contestants, and they too lost themselves. All were put to work on the building of Kintyèl as soon as they forfeited their liberty. At the end of another four days the children of these men and women came to try to win back their parents, but they succeeded only in adding themselves to the number of the gambler's slaves. On a fifth trial, after four days' warning, twelve leading men of Blue-house were lost, among them the chief of the pueblo. On a sixth duly announced gambling-day twelve more men, all important persons, staked their liberty and lost it. Up to this time the Navajos had kept count of the winnings of Noqoìlpi, but afterwards people from other pueblos came in such numbers to play and lose that they could keep count no longer. In addition to their own persons the later victims brought in beads, shells, turquoise, and all sorts of valuables, and gambled them away. With the labor of all these slaves it was not long until the great Kintyèl was finished.

But all this time the Navajos had been merely spectators, and had taken no part in the games. One day the voice of the beneficent god Qastcèyalçi [See Note "C" --- Desertphile] was heard faintly in the distance crying his usual call "hu`hu`hu`hu`."

His voice was heard, as it is always heard, four times, each time nearer and nearer, and immediately after the last call, which was loud and clear, Qastcèyalçi appeared at the door of a hut where dwelt a young couple who had no children, and with them he communicated by means of signs. He told them that the people of Kinçolíj had lost at game with Noqoìlpi two great shells, the greatest treasures of the pueblo; that the Sun had coveted these shells, and had begged them from the gambler; that the latter had refused the request of the Sun and the Sun was angry. In consequence of all this, as Qastcèyalçi related, in twelve days from his visit certain divine personages would meet in the mountains, in a place which he designated, to hold a great ceremony. He invited the young man to be present at the ceremony, and disappeared.

The Navajo kept count of the passing days; on the twelfth day he repaired to the appointed place, and there he found a great assemblage of the gods [Yei]. There were Qastcèyalçi, Qastcèqogan and his son, Níltci, the Wind, Tcalyèl, the Darkness, Tcàapani, the Bat, Klictsò, the Great Snake, Tsilkàli (a little bird), Nasísi, the Gopher, and many others [See Note "D" --- Desertphile]. Beside these, there were present a number of pets or domesticated animals belonging to the gambler, who were dissatisfied with their lot, were anxious to be free, and would gladly obtain their share of the spoils in case their master was ruined. Níltci, the Wind, had spoken to them, and they had come to enter into the plot against Noqoìlpi. All night the gods danced and sang, and performed their mystic rites, for the purpose of giving to the son of Qastcèqogan powers as a gambler equal to those of Noqoìlpi. When the morning came they washed the young neophyte all over, dried him with [corn] meal, dressed him in clothes exactly like those the gambler wore, and in every way made him look as much like the gambler as possible, and then they counselled as to what other means they should take to out-wit Noqoìlpi.

In the first place, they desired to find out how he felt about having refused to his father, the Sun, the two great shells.

"I will do this," said Níltci, the Wind, "for I can penetrate everywhere, and no one can see me;" but the others said, "No, you can go everywhere, but you cannot travel without making a noise and disturbing people. Let Tcalyèl, the Darkness, go on this errand, for he also goes wherever he wills, yet he makes no noise."

So Tcalyèl went to the gambler's house, entered his room, went all through his body while he slept, and searched well his mind, and he came back saying, "Noqoìlpi is sorry for what he has done."

Níltci, however, did not believe this; so, although his services had been before refused, he repaired to the chamber where the gambler slept, and went all through his body and searched well his mind; but he too came back sayingNoqoìlpi was sorry that he had refused to give the great shells to his father.

One of the games they proposed to play is called çàka-çqadsàç, or the thirteen chips; it is played with thirteen thin flat pieces of wood, which are colored red on one side and left white or uncolored on the other side. Success depends on the number of chips, which, being thrown upward, fall with their white sides up.

"Leave the game to me," said the Bat; "I have made thirteen chips that are white on both sides. I will hide myself in the ceiling, and when our champion throws up his chips I will grasp them and throw down my chips instead."

Another game they were to play is called nanjoj; it is played with two long sticks or poles, of peculiar shape and construction (one marked with red and the other with black), and a single hoop. A long many-tailed string, called the "turkey-claw," is secured to the centre of each pole.

"Leave nanjoj to me," said the Great Snake; "I will hide myself in the hoop and make it fall where I please."

Another game was one called tsínbetsil, or push-on-the-wood; in this the contestants push against a tree until it is torn from its roots and falls.

"I will see that this game is won," said Nasísi, the Gopher; "I will gnaw the roots of the tree, so that he who shoves it may easily make it fall."

In the game of tcol, or ball, the object was to hit the ball so that it would fall beyond a certain line.

"I will win this game for you," said the little bird, Tsilkáli, "for I will hide within the ball, and fly with it wherever I want to go. Do not hit the ball hard; give it only a light tap, and depend on me to carry it."

The pets of the gambler begged the Wind to blow hard, so that they might have an excuse to give their master for not keeping due watch when he was in danger, and in the morning the Wind blew for them a strong gale. At dawn the whole party of conspirators left the mountain, and came down to the brow of the cañon to watch until sunrise.

Noqoìlpi had two wives, who were the prettiest women in the whole land. Wherever she went, each carried in her hand a stick with something tied on the end of it, as a sign that she was the wife of the great gambler.

It was their custom for one of them to go every morning at sunrise to a neighboring spring to get water. So at sunrise the watchers on the brow of the cliff saw one of the wives coming out of the gambler's house with a water jar on her head, whereupon the son of Qastcèqogan descended into the cañon, and followed her to the spring. She was not aware of his presence until she had filled her water-jar; then she supposed it to be her own husband, whom the youth was dressed and adorned to represent, and she allowed him to approach her. She soon discovered her error, however, but deeming it prudent to say nothing, she suffered him to follow her into the house. As he entered, he observed that many of the slaves had already assembled; perhaps they were aware that some trouble was in store for their master. The latter looked up with an angry face; he felt jealous when he saw the stranger entering immediately after his wife. He said nothing of this, however, but asked at once the important question, "Have you come to gamble with me?" This he repeated four times [See Note "E" --- Desertphile], and each time the youngQastcèqogan said "No." Thinking the stranger feared to play with him, Noqoìlpi went on challenging him recklessly.
"I'll bet myself against yourself;"
"I'll bet my feet against your feet;"
"I'll bet my legs against your legs;"

and so on he offered to bet every and any part of his body against the same part of his adversary, ending by mentioning his hair.

In the mean time the party of divine ones, who had been watching from above, came down, and people from the neighboring pueblos came in, and among these were two boys, who were dressed in costumes similar to those worn by the wives of the gambler. The young Qastcèqogan pointed to these and said, "I will bet my wives my against your wives."

The great gambler accepted the wager, and the four persons, two women and two mock women, were placed sitting in a row near the wall. First they played the game of thirteen chips. The Bat assisted, as he had promised the son of Qastcèqogan, and the latter soon won the game, and with it the wives of Noqoìlpi.

This was the only game played inside the house; then all went out of doors, and games of various kinds were played. First they tried nanjoj. The track already prepared lay east and west, but, prompted by the wind god, the stranger insisted on having a track made from north to south, and again, at the bidding of the Wind, he chose the red stick. The son of Qastcèqogan threw the wheel: at first it seemed about to fall on the gambler's pole, in the "turkey-claw" of which it was entangled; but to the great surprise of the gambler it extricated itself, rolled farther on, and fell on the pole of his opponent. The latter ran to pick up the ring, lest Noqoìlpi in doing so might hurt the Snake inside; but the gambler was so angry that he threw his stick away and gave up the game, hoping to do better in the next contest, which was that of pushing down trees.

For this the great gambler pointed out two small trees, but his opponent insisted that larger trees must be found. After some search they agreed upon two of good size, which grew close together, and of these the wind-god told the youth which one he must select. The gambler strained with all his might at his tree, but could not move it, while his opponent, when his turn came, shoved the other tree prostrate with little effort, for its roots had all been severed by the Gopher.

Then followed a variety of games, on which Noqoìlpi staked his wealth in shells and precious stones, his houses, and many of his slaves, and lost all.

The last game was that of the ball. On the line over which the ball was to be knocked all the people were assembled: on one side were those who still remained slaves; on the other side were the freedmen and those who had come to wager themselves, hoping to rescue their kinsmen. Noqoìlpi bet on this game the last of his slaves and his own person. The gambler struck his ball a heavy blow, but it did not reach the line; the stranger gave his but a light tap, and the bird within it flew with it far beyond the line, where at the released captives jumped over the line and joined their people.

The victor ordered all the shell beads and precious stones and the great shells to be brought forth. He gave the beads and shells to Qastèyalçi, that they might be distributed among the gods; the two great shells were given to the Sun. [3]

In the mean time Noqoìlpi sat to one side saying bitter things, bemoaning his fate, and cursing and threatening his enemies:

"I will kill you all with the lightning. I will send war and disease among you. May the cold freeze you! May the fire burn you! May the waters drown you!" he cried. [See Note "F" --- Desertphile]

"He has cursed enough,"whispered Níltci to the son of Qastcèqogan. "Put an end to his angry words." So the young victor called Noqoìlpi to him, and said, "You have bet yourself and have lost; you are now my slave and must do my bidding. You are not a god, for my power has prevailed against yours."

The victor had a bow of magic power named Eçin C-ilyil, or the Bow of Darkness: he bent this upwards, and placing the string on the ground, he bade his illustrious slave stand on the string; then he shot Noqoìlpi up into the sky as if he had been an arrow. Up and up he went, growing smaller and smaller to the sight till he faded to a mere speck, and finally disappeared altogether. As he flew upwards he was heard to mutter in the angry tones of abuse and imprecation, until he was too far away to be heard; but no one could distinguish anything he said as he ascended.

He flew up in the sky until he came to the home of Bekotcic-e, the god who carries the moon, and who is supposed by the Navajos to be identical with the god of the Americans. He is very old, and dwells in a long row of stone houses. When Noqoìlpi arrived at the house of Bekotcic-e, he related to the latter all his misadventures in the lower world and said, "Now I am poor, and this is why I have come to see you."

"You need be poor no longer," said Bekotcic-e "I will provide for you."

So he made for the gambler pets or domestic animals of new kinds, different to those which he had in the Chaco valley; he made for him sheep, asses, horses, swine, goats, and fowls. He also gave him bayeta, and other cloths of bright colors, more beautiful than those woven by his slaves at Kintyèli. He made, too, a new people, the Mexicans, for the gambler to rule over, and then he sent him back to this world again, but he descended far to the south of his former abode, and reached the earth in old Mexico.

Noqoìlpi's people increased greatly in Mexico, and after a while they began to move toward the north, and build towns along the Rio Grande. Noqoìlpi came with them until they arrived at a place north of Santa Fé. There they ceased building, and he returned to old Mexico, where he still lives, and where he is now the Nakài C-igÍni, or God of the Mexicans.

Washington Matthews.

[1] In spelling the Navajo words the alphabet of the Bureau of Ethnology is used; "L" is aspirated.

[2] In Journal of a Military Reconnaissance from Santa Fé, New Mexico, to the Navajo Country, etc., Ex. Doc. No. 64, 31st Congress, 1st Session [Senate]. "Reports of the Secretary of War," etc., Washington, 1850, p. 79.

[3] What finally became of these great shells is ingeniously told in another myth.

WORLD WIDE WEB EDITION NOTES
by Desertphile:

[A] See also the tale of Holy Man poisoning Mister Snake with toxic tobacco (in the Male Shooting Way), then charging Miss Snake all of the Snake family's possessions to cure him. To get their possessions back, the Snakes gave Holy Man medicinal sandpaintings.

[B] The ’anaasází predate the Diné in the area (perhaps by around 1300 years). The Pueblo peoples (among them being the Zuñi and Hopi) are thought to be the descendants of the Anasazi.

[C] If I recall correctly, this is Talking God. Talking God does not actually "talk," though he does communicate and he makes a specific sound. His companion, xactcéoyan, makes a somewhat similar sound.

[D] Bat, Gopher, and Great Snake are three of many guardians who reside on the eastern opening of Diné sandpaintings. Others are Big Fly, Sun's Tobacco Pouch, Oriole, Butterfly, and others.

[E] The event of having a question asked four times and having it answered falsely three times before answering truthfully the forth time comes up often in Diné tales.

[F] A "sore loser," to put it mildly. The behavior of Gambler here is a great insult; a Diné acting like this would be an object of contempt. That he eventually became equated with the Mexican (Christian) god at the turn of the century may also be considered an insult.


Thank you very much again, dear friends, for visiting my blog. Please share your thoughts with us, if you will. have a great Week.

ڰۣIn Loving Light from the Fairy Ladyڰۣ

Wednesday, 14 January 2015

Securing Fire

Securing Fire

Hi dear friends today we visit the Apache people's legends

As you can see from the map, there were many Native American Peoples making their homes in what is now Arizona. So far we have looked at legends of the Hualapai and Hopi. Now we will take a look at a legend from the Apache People that is common to many of the peoples that we have already visited: How fire came to the people.

This legend has been told by two different storytellers sometime in the early 20th Century, thus we have two different versions that are rather similar. Both speak of animals in the same way that we speak of other people, so don't let that confuse you. There are no humans in these tales.

See if you can spot the similarities and differences between the Apache account of how the people got fire and how it came to other peoples.

Securing Fire


(First Version)

There were people living here on the earth. Coyote, birds, or hawks were all people. There was no fire. The only ones who had fire would not give it away. The others, many people, were without fire. Martens, living in the tops of tall pine trees, were the only ones who had fire but they would not give any of it away.

Those who were living below them consulted as to how they should get fire. They decided to play hide the ball and sent out invitations for everybody to come to the game. They gathered under the trees and shouted to the martens to come down and bring some fire. They said they were going to play hide the ball.

They came down bringing the fire with them. They put wood on the fire at the camping place and stood around it in four lines so that there was no way anyone could run off with the fire. None of the people who didn't have fire were in the center of the circle.

Coyote, who was lying down some way off, said he would get the fire and run off with it. They were playing and having a good time. Those who owned the fire were winning. They began to dance.

Coyote had a torch prepared by tying bark under his tail. He got up and came to those who were dancing. "Have a good time, my cousins," he said. "My foot pains me. 'Dance for me. Separate and let me through to the fire." They were dancing and having a good time.

When it was nearly daylight, Coyote said, he was going to dance. He told the others to dance vigorously, bending their knees. He urged them to do this repeatedly. Finally, he danced and switched his tail into the fire. They called to him that his tail was likely to catch on fire. He assured them that it would not burn.

Then day broke. He stuck his tail in the fire again and it took fire. "Your tail is burning, cousin," they called to him. He jumped over the four lines of dancers who were in circles around the fire, and ran off. The people, who were stingy of their fire, ran after him.

Coyote became winded and could hardly run. The people who were chasing him caught him. Coyote passed the fire to Night Hawk who jumped on it and went with it. Those who were stingy of their fire tore Coyote's mouth. Night Hawk kept flying and jumping. Those who had the fire nearly caught him for he was exhausted. When those who were running after him caught him, he gave the fire to Road-runner who ran away with it. They tore Night Hawk's mouth open.

Road-runner ran on carrying the fire. Those who were pursuing him nearly overtook him. He was exhausted. When they caught him, he gave the fire to Buzzard who flew away with it. Those who were trying to recover their fire chased him until he was worn out. He gave the fire to Humming Bird. When they caught Buzzard they pulled the hair on his head out.

They saw the smoke of a fire arising in the distance from the top of a mountain. It was Humming Bird who had set the fire. There was a fire, too, on the top of another mountain which stood far away on the opposite side. A little way from that there was fire on another mountain. Everywhere, fires were burning. It was Humming Bird who had accomplished all this. Those who had owned the fire turned back saying it was now impossible to recover their fire.

The people who had been without fire were now all supplied with it. They were happy about it and expressed their thanks to Coyote.


Securing Fire (Second Version)

They say long ago there was no fire. The people ate their food uncooked. There were only two men who had fire. They could see it in the tops of a very tall pine tree which stood there.

Coyote proposed that a large company of people be invited to come together for a dance. He also suggested that a letter be sent to those who had fire asking them to bring some as they wished to gamble with the guessing game.

Coyote told his companions to tie dry grass around his tail. When it was daybreak Coyote danced by himself. "I will dance over the fire," he said. "Your tail is afire," they called to him. "Why do you say my tail is burning?" he asked. "Your tail is burning," they called to him again. He went around the fire four times and then jumped over them. He ran away with the fire. Those who owned the fire ran after him and put out what fire they found. They caught Coyote after he had run a long distance and pulled out his nose so it is long and spread his mouth apart so it is wide.

Then another man was running away beyond with the fire. It was Night Hawk. They caught him after a long chase. They pushed the crown of his head down hard and spread his mouth open.

Another person was running with the fire. It was Turkey Buzzard. They caught him a long distance away and pulled the hair out of his head. He had given the fire to Humming Bird. A large mountain was standing in the distance. Fire was coming out from the top of this mountain. The people had been without fire but came to have plenty of it because of Coyote. The fire went inside of the trees and became plentiful.

Thank you very much again dear friends, for visiting my blog. Please share your thoughts with us, if you will. and have a great Thursday.

ڰۣIn Loving Light from the Fairy Ladyڰۣ

A Hopi myth

A Hopi myth

Hi dear friends and followers, today we visit the Hopi and their legends.

The Hopi are a People native to New Mexico. They have resisted conquest by anyone since their uprising against the Spanish in 1680. This resistance has not, however, barred the entry of outside influences into their cosmology.


Hopi belief is far too deep for me to even begin to describe to you here, or even in a long treatise. It can vary significantly from village to village and has been colored or shaded by time and the person relating the legend.
Being rather secretive about their beliefs and rituals, one cannot say for certain if the person recording any given legend, be it the college researcher, ethnographer, or folklorist, is hearing the story as another Hopi would hear it. It is entirely possible that a legend is related because it is something that a certain listener wants to hear or because it can be the vehicle for some "editorializing" on the part of the speaker.

In the following myth, the major actors are the diety, Hurung Wuhti, the Sun, and their creations. I have chosen to present this legend because many people have heard of the Hopi and their mystical prophecies. It is not the simplest to follow but I believe that you will find that it eloquently explains so many things that are necessary for all of us to know as humans on Earth.


HURÚING WUHTI AND THE SUN

Alíksai! A very long time ago there was nothing here in the world but water. Only away off in the west where Hurúing Wuhti lived there was a small piece of land where she lived. She lived in a hill or bluff called Taláschomo. Hurúing Wuhti owned the moon, the stars, and all the hard substances, such as beads, corals, shells, etc. Away in the east lived the Sun, painted up very beautifully. The Sun was very skillful. One time Hurúing Wuhti sent the Moon to the Sun, throwing him through (the intervening) space so that he fell down in front of the Sun. He told the Sun that Hurúing Wuhti wanted him; then he arose and passed through the sky back to the west. The Sun also soon rose and followed the Moon to the west, to the house of Hurúing Wuhti. "Have you come?" the latter said. "Yes, I have come. Why do you want me? I have come because you wanted me." "Thanks," the Hurúing Wuhti said, "thanks that you have come, my father, because you shall be my father." "Yes," the Sun said, "and you shall be my mother, and we shall own all things together." "Yes," Hurúing Wuhti said, "Now let us create something for you." "All right, thank you," the Sun replied.

Hereupon they entered another chamber which was very beautiful, and there all kinds of the skins of different kinds of animals and birds were hanging. So Hurúing Wuhti got out a bundle and placed it on the floor. It was a large piece of old native cloth (möchápu). She then placed on the floor all kinds of bird skins and feathers. Hereupon she rubbed her body and arms, rubbing off a great many small scales from her cuticle. These she took into her hands, rubbing the two palms of her hands together, and then placing these small scales on the feathers and skins. Hereupon she covered the whole with the möchápu. The Sun kindled a little fire at the east side of the pile. Hurúing Wuhti then took hold of two corners of the cloth and began to sing, moving the corners to the time of her singing. The Sun took hold of the other two corners and also waved them, but he did not sing.

After they had waved the corners four times, the things under the covering commenced to move, and soon they began to emit sounds, whistling and chirping the way the different birds do. Hereupon Hurúing Wuhti took off the covering saying: "We are done, be it this way." There were all different kinds of birds, those that fly around in the summer when it is warm. As she took off the covering the birds commenced to fly, passed through the opening and flew out into the air, but soon all returned, gathering again in front of the two. "You shall own these," Hurúing Wuhti said to the Sun, "they are yours." "Thanks," the Sun replied, "that they are mine." Hurúing Wuhti then handed to the Sun a large jar made of a light transparent material like quartz crystal. Into this the Sun placed all the birds, closing up the jar.

Hereupon the Sun said: "Now, let us create something for you, too." "Very well," Hurúing Wuhti said. Then the Sun placed a small quantity of different kinds of hair on the floor. Furthermore, a little quantity of the different kinds of paints that he was painted up with. He then let his beard (rays) drop upon these objects, also shook his wings towards them. They then covered up the things again, each took hold of two corners of the covering, and the Sun then sang a song. Soon something began to move under the covering, and when they removed the latter an antelope, deer, cotton-tail rabbit, jack-rabbit, and mountain sheep jumped up, and after running around in the large room for a while, they returned and assembled again in front of the two. "You take these, you shall own them," the Sun said to Hurúing Wuhti. "All right, thank you," the latter said. Hereupon these animals took places close to the Hurúing Wuhti, whom they considered as their mother afterwards. "You shall own these, they shall be yours," the Sun said once more to Hurúing Wuhti, for which she thanked him.

The latter then put the Sun into an opening in the floor of the house, through which the Sun departed with the vessel containing the birds. After having passed through the opening, the Sun returned under the earth to the east again, and when he came out he turned over the land which belonged to Hurúing Wuhti, and which had been under water, and by so doing made the world (tû'wakachi) land. The Sun at once noticed a great many beings come out of the water and moving. about on the shore of the land. He first called them the Water Lice (bá-atuhtu), but when he had risen to the middle of the sky he noticed that they were people, and he called them White People (Bahánas), some Spaniards (Castílians), and others Mormons (Mámona). He then poured out of the jar all the birds which then went flying around in the air and increased.

From this time on the Sun always went towards the west, entering the house of Hurúing Wuhti, passing out below, and returning to the east again. When he came there this time Hurúing Wuhti said: "Have you come?" "Yes," the Sun said. "Thanks," the Hurúing Wuhti replied, "let us create something again. What have you found out?" "Yes," the Sun said, "land has come out every where, and everything is beautiful, and the water is beautiful, too. Now, to-morrow when I shall rise there will be blossoms and flowers and grass all over the land.

"Very well," Hurúing Wuhti said, "but let us make something now again. What shall we make?" Hereupon she fed the Sun honey, and other good food. When the Sun was through eating, Hurúing Wuhti again said: "Well, now, what shall we make? Let us use the covering again," placing the same covering that they had used upon the floor. Hereupon Hurúing Wuhti rubbed her legs and feet, rubbing off some more particles of cuticle. These she took into her hands, working them into a small ball, which she placed on the floor, and covered it up with the möchápu. They then again took hold of the four corners of the covering, Hurúing Wuhti singing a song. Soon something moved under the covering and the crying of a little child was heard, which soon said: "I am hot, am perspiring." They uncovered it and found a little maiden. "O my!" Hurúing Wuhti said: "Only one has been created. That is not good, it must not be this way." Hereupon she put on the covering again and, then repeated the song. Soon a second voice was heard, and removing the covering they found a little boy, the little brother of the mána. His first sound was a groan as that of a small child. Hereupon he also said: "I am very warm," and wiped off the perspiration from his face and body. "Have you come?" Hurtling Wuhti said. "Yes, we have come. Thanks," she replied.

They were brother and sister. So the children sat up. "Have you anything to say?" Hurúing Wuhti asked them. "Yes," they said, "why do you want us?" "Yes," Hurúing Wuhti replied, "why my father, the Sun, has made a beautiful earth and I want you to live on this earth. That is why I want you. So I want you to go eastward now, and wherever you find a good piece of land, there you settle down. By and by others, too, shall come to you.'' Before they started the Sun asked Hurúing Wuhti who these two were, how they should be called? And Hurúing Wuhti named the youth Múyingwa, and the maiden Yáhoya. Hereupon the two started and left.

The Sun and Hurúing Wuhti prepared to create some more. It was at this time still night. Hurúing Wuhti now rubbed her abdomen with both hands, and took from her umbilicus a small quantity of the scales which she twisted together. All this scaly matter, thus rubbed from her body, she then placed on the floor, covering it up with the aforesaid cloth. They again took hold of the corners, sang over it, and as they lifted up the corners the fourth time, something began to move under the covering. They took the covering off and there was another being all in perspiration. It was again a maiden. She wiped off the perspiration from her body with some sand that was on the floor, and sat up. Hurúing Wuhti told her not to rub her body any more, as the sand had already adhered to her body and the latter was dry. She hereupon told the maiden that she should be called Sand Clan member (Tuwá-wungwa), and Lizard Clan member (Kúkuts-wungwa). Hurúing Wuhti hereupon sent the maiden off after the other two, giving her, however, one grain of shelled corn before she left.

By this time it became a little lighter and the Sun said to Hurúing Wuhti, she should hurry up. So the latter this time rubbed her face, and the inside of her nose, and from the scales thus rubbed off she formed a little ball, placed it on the floor, and again covered it. They went through the same process as before. Soon they heard a child crying like a Hopi child would cry, and another one like the crying of a coyote. Removing the covering, they found a youth and a maiden, both also perspiring profusely and wiping off the perspiration. "Why do you want us?" the children asked. "Yes," Hurúing Wuhti said, "we have made this beautiful world here and there is hardly anybody living there yet, and that you should live here somewhere we wanted you." She then said that the mána should be a Burrowing Owl Clan member (Kókop-wungwa), and the youth coyote Clan member (Ísh-wungwa). Hereupon she gave one grain of shelled corn to each one and told them now to follow the others, and that they should travel quickly.

Hereupon they created once more in the same manner as before. When they were ready to lift up the covering they heard somebody grunt, and another one seemed to be angry, so after they had partly lifted up the covering they dropped it again, but the two under it said, "Remove that, we are very hot." So they removed it and there was one child like a Hopi. It was the one that had grunted like a bear. To this one Hurúing Wuhti gave the name Bear-Clan member (Hón-wungwa). She gave a grain of shelled corn to him and sent him on. The other, Head-with-the-Hair-Pushed-over-it-Backward (Tálqöto), was a Navaho, and to him Hurúing Wuhti gave a little piece of spoiled meat-and sent him on. This is the reason why the Navaho use meat, instead of corn like the Hopi.

Hereupon the Sun again passed through the opening in the floor, returning to the east under the earth. The next day when he arose again and had traveled a distance, he saw in the distance smoke arising at different places, and noticed that the people who had been created were camping there. As he rose higher he saw at a distance a maiden and a youth who were traveling along, but seemed to be very tired. The maiden would sometimes carry her little brother on her back, then she would set him down and the two would join hands and travel along together. 

When the Sun came nearer he asked them: "Where do you come from? Who are you?" "Yes," they said, "We have come out away off there somewhere." "All right, the Sun said," you travel on." Hereupon he gave them water to drink and a little corn for food. He then said to the youth that he should be called Sun Clan member (Tawá-wungwa), and to the maiden he gave the name Forehead Clan member (Kál-wungwa), whereupon he told them to travel on east ward. The Sun and Forehead clans later came to Shupaúlavi, the Bear Clan to Shongópavi, and the Burrowing Owl Clan to Mishóngnovi, while the Sand Clan went to Wálpi. Múyingwa and his sister settled down somewhere west of a large spring situated south of Shongópavi.

Thank you very much again, dear friends, for visiting my blog. Please share your thoughts with us, if you will. have a great Week. 

ڰۣIn Loving Light from the Fairy Ladyڰۣ

Tuesday, 13 January 2015

The Legend of the Hualapai Origin

The Legend of the Hualapai Origin

Hi dear friends and followers. Today we visit the legends of the Hualapais.
 
When I was in Arizona in 2009 I saw the Grand Canyon, not as most tourists do. Almost everyone sees it from the top down, and it is most impressive. I saw it from the bottom up as a guest of the Hualapai Nation at their lodge in Peach Springs, Arizona.

I stayed at their hotel and, after securing a permit, drove all of the back roads of their tribal lands from the hotel to the Colorado River. It was mid-October and there were no crowds. The weather was pleasantly warm and the water of the river felt nice for wading. As I was their guest for a few days, I feel that I should return the hospitality by featuring whatever legends of the Hualapai that I could find.

The Hualapais connect their emergence into this world to the Grand Canyon. Tribal legend tells that the people came into this world from Spirit Mountain (near present-day Bullhead City) and lived on the banks of the Colorado River, eventually migrating to the Colorado Plateau. Their traditional lands extended over about six million acres, from the Colorado River on the west and north, east to the San Francisco Peaks and south to Bill Williams Mountain. Anthropologists believe that the Hualapai and Havasupai were bands of the Pai, who divided up after European contact. The earliest physical remains of the Pai date back to C.E. 600 and were found near Hoover Dam.

The Hualapais traveled in bands as nomadic hunters and gatherers, eating small game, cactus, yucca and piñon nuts. Traveling on foot, they traded with other Native Americans in the Grand Canyon area and as far away as the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Rio Grande to the east. They traded hides to the Havasupai for crops, and traded meat for squash, corn and pumpkins from the Mojave Indians living south on the Colorado River.

Today the Hualapai Nation covers about one million acres, with 108 miles of Colorado River frontage extending from Lake Mead in the west to the boundary of the Havasupai Reservation in the east. The Hualapais' seal depicts purplish canyonlands in the middle, a testament to the historical importance of Grand Canyon.

The Legend of the Hualapai Origin I

According to the legend of origin, there were two gods named Hamatavilla and Tudjupa. Hamatavilla was the older god and Tudjupa, the younger. It is said that these two gods emerged from the bottom of the mountain, Wikame. While they were sitting at the top of the mountain, they both decided that Tudjupa would rule the world. Eventually, Tudjupa created various Native-American tribes from the pieces of a cane. The tribe created from the second longest strip was the Hualapai. These tribes live close to the mountain, Wikame.
The Legend of the Hualapai Origin II
Once upon a time, there were two gods and they were Tochopo and Hokomata. While Tochopo was good by nature, Hokomata was full of wickedness. Hokomata quarreled with Tochopo and vowed to inundate the entire world. After hearing Hokomata's words, Tochopo became unhappy and decided to save his daughter, Pukeheh, whom he held in great affection. He decided to save her so that she could be the progenitor of the future human race.

After Pukeheh saw the world again, she yearned to be a mother. When she saw the rising sun, she thanked her father, Tochopo. She decided that the sun should be the father of her child. She conceived and gave birth to the sun's child whom she called Inyaa. Afterwards Pukeheh desired another child and chose one of the Havasu Canyon waterfalls (Wahahathpeekhaha) to be the father of her second child. Soon she conceived again and a daughter was born. The children of Pukeheh became the predecessors of the human race. The Havasupai were the first offspring, followed by the Apaches, Hualapais, Hopis, Paiutes, and Navajos.

Death of Hamatavilla & the Story of the Coyote

Earlier Tudjupa had warned Hamatavilla not step on the frogs near the river. However, Hamatavilla stepped on a frog and became very ill. Eventually, he died. Tudjupa decided to take Hamatavilla's body and burn it for four days. He informed the people that at the end of the fourth day, Hamatavilla would regain life.

A Coyote was among the people in the crowd and he disputed Tudjupa's prediction. As a result, Hamatavilla never regained his life.

Tudjupa decided to bury Hamatavilla's body and informed the people that after four days, plants would grow on the grave. Once again, the Coyote questioned Tudjupa's words.
Tudjupa ignored the Coyote's words and sent him to the grave on the fourth day. There the Coyote saw beans, pumpkins, watermelons, and corn growing. Both the Coyote and Tudjupa decided that the crops should gathered and eaten.

People from the various Native-American tribes ate the food and planted crops from whatever was left. They continued to do so for a long time. However, the various tribes soon began to bicker amongst themselves because the Mohave reserved their food separately. Finally Tudjupa resolved to put an end to the bickering by dividing the people into different tribes.

Thank you very much again, dear friends, for visiting my blog. Please share your thoughts with us, if you will. have a great Week.

ڰۣIn Loving Light from the Fairy Ladyڰۣ

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